Broccoli- the world’s healthiest food state times

Broccoli belongs to cruciferous vegetable family, which includes kale, cabbage, cauliflower, brussel sprouts and Chinese cabbage. Broccoli ( Brassica oleracea var) is of two types, heading and purple or green sprouting. Heading broccoli forms curds like cauliflower, while sprouting broccoli contains a group of green immature buds and thick fleshy flower stalk. It is cherished for its delicious taste, flavour and nutritive value. It is rich source of proteins, minerals and has good organoleptic properties. Broccoli has multiple unit in cuisine as a salad, soup, pickle and in cooked form. The intact and chopped broccoli stalks can be included in salad to take the advantage of there valuable vitamins, minerals. Broccoli is high in vitamin C, and vitamin A, as well as dietary fibers.

A single serving provides more than 30 mg of vitamin C. One cup of cooked broccoli has as much vitamin C as an orange. It has about 130 times more vitamin content then cauliflower and 22 times more than cabbage. Quercetain, a flavonal glyceroid is present in broccoli at the level of 65 mg per kg. Whole cup of cooked broccoli offer 71.8 mg of Ca which is equivalent to as much Ca in 4 oz of milk. Similar amount of broccoli gives 10 per cent of daily Iron requirement and its vitamin C content help to absorb the iron in body .It can be raised as main winter season crop as well as off season crop during summer. It can be also grown as commercial crop in hills as well as in plains to feed the metropolitan market and for export. The intact additional its colorful appeal tenderness, freshness and flavour attract consumer to taste it raw or cooked. It is good source of income.

Vitamins, minerals and phytonutrients all contribute to the antioxidants benefits benefits provided by our food. Broccoli is a premiere example of a vegetable providing all three types of antioxidants. A high intake of broccoli reduces the risk of aggressive prostate cancer, colon cancer, breast cancer, bladder cancer and overian cancer.An average of ½ cup of broccoli per day only 22 calories worth of broccoli is enough to provide measurable benefits against cancer prevention. Broccoli’s dark green colour is an indicator of its hearty carotene content. Broccoli can help us to lower the risk of excessive homocysteine formation and cardiovascular problems that are related to excess homocysteine.

Two carotenoids found in significant concentrations in broccoli are lutein and zeaxanthin which play an especially important role in the health of the eye. Oxidation caused by free radicals sets reduced capability to combat ageing and serious illness including cancer kidney damage arteriosclerosis and heart diseases. Its fiber content is also useful for diabetes. Eating diet with fiber improves and controls the blood sugar and can therefore decrease the need for insulin and other medications. The metabolic impact of broccoli glucosinolate overlaps substantially with the metabolic changes needed to lower the risk of type 2 diabetes. Insofar as oxidative stress is a known risk factor for development of type 2 diabetes, the antioxidant effect of broccoli are also highly likely to be involved in this potential health benefit. Broccoli is a rich source of Indole Carbinol which is responsible for break down of estrogen, a hormone that promotes the development of breast. Like many other whole foods, broccoli is packed with soluble fiber that draws cholesterol out of our body. This is because the fiber in broccoli helps bind with bile acids in the digestive tract. This makes excreting cholesterol out of our body easily. It also helps in fighting obesity by being a low calories, low fats and high nutrient vegetable, Broccoli may be responsible for boosting enzyme that helps to detoxify the body, broccoli contains sulphorifanes glucosinolates, Which has strong anti oxidants and anti cancerous property. Research has shown the ability of kaemferol to lessen the impact of allergy related substances on our body. Broccoli even has significant amount of omega 3 fatty acids, which are well known as anti-inflammatory. Since broccoli is enriched with vitamin C,which has numerous antioxidants properties,it is great for anti-ageing. Eating broccoli regularly helps in reducing fine lines, wrinkles, skin issues like acne and even pigmentation.

Important varieties of Broccoli are Palam Samridhi, Pusa KTS-I, and Early Green. 400-500 gm seeds are sufficient for hectare. Broccoli is a cool season crop resistant to mild frost. The temperature of 20-30 degree Celsius is optimum for its growth. High temperature causes the head to be rough with uneven bud sizes and distorted. Well drained rich in organic matter, soil are best for its cultivation. 20 to 25 gm seed is sufficient for one Kanal. Mid Septembr-early November is suitable time for planting. 4-6 weeks seedlings are ready for transplantation in the main field and seedling are to be planted 45 cm apart.

The heads having 10-15 cm stems should be harvested .The growth of lateral shorts is promoted in the leafs. The sprouts may attain a diameter of 3-10 cm and the harvesting is prolonged for several weeks .Harvesting early types mature in 40-50 days, mid in 60-100 days and late after 100 days of transplanting. Generally harvesting continues for 4-6 weeks if harvesting is delayed, the bud cluster become loosened. Central head weight about 500-600 gm and on an average, its yield varies from 100-150 hectare. The intact additional its colorful appeal tenderness, freshness and flavour attract consumer to taste it raw or cooked. It is good source of income.